New▓ York Times

own from a high of 77 percent in January 2009 (blo▓, Decembe

r 16, 2015). A survey rele▓ased in November 2015 by the Public Religion Research Institute in the United States showed that 35 ▓percent of Americans

believed racial tensions were a major concern in their own communities, jumping 18 ▓percentage p

on May 4, License

oints from 2012 (, Novemb▓er 17, 2015). Figures released in August 2015 by Pew Research Center showed that 50 percent o▓f Americ


ans said that racism was a big problem i▓n the U.S. society; 60 percent Amer▓icans said the country needed to continue making changes to achieve racial equality, up 14 percentage points from a▓ year ago (, August 5, 2015).Cases of African-Americans being killed by police occurred repeatedly. On November 15, 2015, the 24-year-old African-American Jamar Cla

rk was shot dead by white police of▓ficers. The fatal shooting occurred w▓hen two police officers were trying to arrest him. Witnesses said that Clark was handcuffed when he was shot in the head. The civil rights organization "Black Lives Matter" organi▓zed protests in multiple cities across the country. In▓ a Facebook post, Black Lives Matter ▓activists noted "the era of white supremacist terrorism against people of co▓lor across the U.S.," (, November 18, 20▓15; www, November 20, 2015; www.huf▓, November 24, 2015) On April 12, 2

s "ba▓d technology

01▓5, as 25-year-old African-American Freddie Gray was being arrested, police handcuffed him and had knees on his back and his head. Gray was dra


▓gged and thrown into the back of a police van with his face down. Gray requested medical attention while bei▓ng transported in the van but the request was denied. Gray ▓lapsed into a coma following the journey on April 12 and▓ died a week later in a hospital. He died▓ of a severe spinal cord injury. The incident sparked large-scale protests in Baltimore. The protests turned violent on April 27, and Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan de▓clared a state of emergency and activated ▓the National Guard. It was the second time in six months that a state called out the National Guard to enforce order after a white police officer killed a black teenager, Michael

Brown, in Ferguson in 2014. The New York Times said that Gray had become the nation's latest symbol of police brutality in an April 28 story. (, April 29, 201▓5;, May 5, 2015;, Apr▓il 27, 2015;, April 27 and 28, 2015) According to The Washington Post website, police fatally shot 965 people in 2015 as o▓f December 24, 2015, including 36 unarmed African-Americans (, ▓December 24, 2015). The CBS New

s-New York Times poll released on May 4, 2015 showed that 79 percent of African-Americ

ans believed police▓ were more likely to use deadly force against a black person than against a whi

were fairly g

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ood or very

te person, and bl▓ack respondents were more likely than white respondents▓ to believe their local police made them feel ▓anxious rather than safe (, May 4, 2015). According to a poll released by the Nat▓ional Bar Association in the United States, 88 percent of blacks believed black people were treated unfairl▓y by police,

good, d

compared with 59 percent of whites who shared that view (www.usatod, Septem▓ber 9, 2015).Racial discrimination in th▓e cr

iminal justice system was severe. A Gall

up ▓survey in 2015 showed tha

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